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Catalog using Hebrew script

Discover how to catalog using Hebrew script in Connexion client.



Use Hebrew script data for cataloging items in the Hebrew language. Use Hebrew script data the same way you use other non-Latin script data in the client.

See Work with international records and Guidelines for contributing non-Latin script bibliographic records to WorldCat for details specific to non- Latin scripts. See also general procedures describing how to:


Hebrew script can also be used to add variant name headings to authority records.

Tools for using non-Latin scripts

Specific tools for using Hebrew script

Other tools to help with non-Latin scripts in general

  • MARC-8 character verification (Edit > MARC-8 Characters > Verify) - Verify characters separately from record validation 
  • Link/unlink (Edit > Linking Fields > Link [or Unlink]) - Visually link or unlink non-Latin script data fields with equivalent Latin script (romanized) data fields (bibliographic records only) 
  • Export options for data fields (Tools > Options > International) - Determine (for bibliographic records only): 
    • Whether to export both equivalent Latin script (romanized) data and non-Latin script data or only one or the other 
    • Position of data if you export both Latin and non-Latin script data 
    • Sort order 
  • Export and import using UTF-8 Unicode or MARC-8 character sets. The UTF-8 Unicode option allows you to work with non-MARC-8 characters in the client for your local records (settings for export are in Tools > Options > Export, click Record Characteristics, and settings for import are in File > Import Records, click Record Characteristics). 

Hebrew script entry and character set

Script entry methods

Character set supported

The client supports the following Hebrew character set defined in MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media:

  • 32(hex) [ASCII graphic: 2] = Basic Hebrew

Script identifier in bibliographic records

The client adds the following data to subfield ǂc of field 066 in Hebrew records to indicate the presence of Hebrew characters:

  • (2 for Hebrew

Romanized data

See the ALA-LC Romanization Table for Hebrew on the Library of Congress website.

Align Hebrew or Arabic script data for display and print

By default, the client displays (and prints) records with Arabic or Hebrew script aligned to the right. To toggle between displaying these scripts right-to-left or left-to-right:

  • To toggle alignment for all Hebrew or Arabic script data in the current record, click View > Align Right or press <Alt><V><I>. By default, data aligns to the right for display and printing.
    • The Align Right icon next to the command on the View menu is active (highlighted) when Align Right is selected. The icon is inactive (grayed out) when Align Right is cleared. 
  • To toggle data alignment in the current field, right-click a field and then click Right-to-Left Reading Order on the pop-up menu. The client changes alignment of the Hebrew or Arabic script data only in the current field. 

Use Unicode formatting characters for controlling bidirectional data in Arabic and Hebrew fields

Enter Unicode formatting characters in Arabic, Persian, and Hebrew records to correctly display left-to-right multiple-digit numbers and punctuation, including brackets, hyphens, internal spaces, etc., within a field of right-to-left script data.

  • Export/import using UTF-8 Unicode character set - Unicode formatting control characters are retained as is in Arabic, Persian, and Hebrew records exported or imported using the UTF-8 Unicode character set, along with other non-MARC-8 Unicode characters. 
  • Export/import using MARC-8 character set - The Unicode formatting characters are retained in Numeric Character Reference (NCR) format in records exported or imported using the MARC-8 character set, along with other non-MARC-8 characters.

Más información:

To insert a Unicode control character:

  1. Click to locate the cursor in the position where you want to insert a formatting control number.
  2. Right-click in the field and then click Insert Unicode Control Character on the pop-up menu.
  3. Click one of the following characters:
    • LRM Left-to-Right Mark 
    • RLM Right-to-Left Mark 
    • ZWJ Zero Width Joiner 
    • ZWNJ Zero Width Non-Joiner 
    • LRE Start of Left-to-Right Embedding 
    • RLE Start of Right-to-Left Embedding 
    • LRO Start of Left-to-Right Override 
    • RLO Start of Right-to-Left Override 
    • PDF Pop Directional Formatting

     Note: Create a text string by entering one of the characters listed above using the right-click menu; then assign the text string to a keystroke shortcut. Enter the character by pressing the keystroke.

Example: To control the display of the data 742[1981 or 1982] that you enter in field 260 c of a bibliographic record, that is preceded and followed by Hebrew script data:

  • Click locate the cursor in field 260 c. 
  • Right-click in the field, click Insert Unicode Control Character on the pop-up menu, and then click LRE Start of Left-to-Right Embedding.
  • Enter the data string, 742[1981 or 1982], immediately following the character. 
  • Without moving the cursor, right-click in the field again. On the pop-up menu, click Insert Unicode Control Character and then click PDF Pop Directional Formatting

Indexing for Hebrew script searches

Notes on searching

  • Use word or phrase search indexes and browse indexes. 
  • Word searches find the data string you enter anywhere in the indexed field. Phrase searches find the data string starting with the first character in a field or subfield and including each character in exact order. Browsing scans an index for the closest match to the character string followed by any other data. 
  • If you use qualifiers to limit a search, type them in Latin script. 
  • Do not use derived searching. 
  • Do not truncate searches (asterisk (*) at the end of a search term). You can use browsing for automatic truncation (enter only as many characters as needed for a match without using an asterisk). 
  • If you want to retrieve all Hebrew script records or see sample records, use the "character sets present" search index (label vp:) with the assigned code hbr.
    • To find all Hebrew script records, enter vp:hbr as a Command Line Search only.

       Note: If a search for all Hebrew script records alone retrieves too many WorldCat records (limit 1,500 records), you must qualify the search or combine with another search and try again (e.g., vp:hbr/1991-vp:hbr and mt:bks; etc.).

See general procedures and search techniques for searching WorldCat.

Hebrew character indexing specifics

The following table shows Hebrew characters grouped together and indexed the same as if they are the same character. The characters are normalized.

Enter any character of a group of normalized characters in a search and retrieve results for all characters in the group.

Images and names of characters indexed the same are in columns 3 and 4, opposite the character with which they are indexed.

Character Character name Other characters indexed the same
Character Character name
Vav Vav Ligature Yiddish double Vav/Tsvey Vovn Ligature Yiddish double Vav/Tsvey Vovn
Ligature Yiddish Vav Yod/Vov Yud Ligature Yiddish Vav Yod/Vov Yud
Yod Yod Ligature Yiddish double Yod/Tsvey Yudn Ligature Yiddish double Yod/Tsvey Yudn
Kaf Kaf Final Kaf Final Kaf
Mem Mem Final Mem Final Mem
Nun Nun Final Nun Final Nun
Pe Pe Final Pe Final Pe
Tsadi Tsadi Final Tsadi Final Tsadi