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Catalog using Greek script

Discover how to catalog using Greek script in Connexion client.



Use Greek script data for cataloging items in the Greek language. Use Greek script data the same way you use other non-Latin script data in the client.

See Work with international records and Guidelines for contributing non-Latin script bibliographic records to WorldCat for details specific to non- Latin scripts. See also general procedures describing how to:


Greek script can also be used to add variant name headings to authority records.

Tools for using non-Latin scripts

  • MARC-8 character verification (Edit > MARC-8 Characters > Verify) - Verify characters separately from record validation 
  • Link/unlink (Edit > Linking Fields > Link [or Unlink]) - Visually link or unlink non-Latin script data fields with equivalent Latin script (romanized) data fields (bibliographic records only) 
  • Export options for data fields (Tools > Options > International) - Determine (for bibliographic records only): 
    • Whether to export both equivalent Latin script (romanized) data and non-Latin script data or only one or the other 
    • Position of data if you export both Latin and non-Latin script data 
    • Sort order 
  • Export and import using UTF-8 Unicode or MARC-8 character sets. The UTF-8 Unicode option allows you to work with non-MARC-8 characters in the client for your local records (settings for export are in Tools > Options > Export, click Record Characteristics, and settings for import are in File > Import Records, click Record Characteristics).

Greek script entry and character set

Script entry method

If your system default language is not the one you want to use for cataloging Greek materials, you can install the Greek language. Windows provides an input keyboard to enter Greek script. See more about input methods for languages that use non-Latin scripts or see relevant topics on the Microsoft website.

Character set supported

The client supports the following Greek character set defined in MARC 21 Specifications for Record Structure, Character Sets, and Exchange Media:

  • 53(hex) [ASCII graphic: S] = Basic Greek

Script identifier in bibliographic records

The client adds the following data to c of field 066 in Greek records to indicate the presence of Greek characters:

  • (S

Romanized data

See the ALA-LC Romanization Table for Greek on the Library of Congress website.

Indexing for Greek script searches

Notes on searching

  • Use word or phrase search indexes and browse indexes. 
  • Word searches find the data string you enter anywhere in the indexed field. Phrase searches find the data string starting with the first character in a field or subfield and including each character in exact order. Browsing scans an index for the closest match to the character string followed by any other data. 
  • If you use qualifiers to limit a search, type them in Latin script. 
  • Do not use derived searching. 
  • Do not truncate searches (asterisk (*) at the end of a search term). You can use browsing for automatic truncation (enter only as many characters as needed for a match, without using an asterisk at the end). 
  • If you want to retrieve all Greek script records or see sample records, use the "character sets present" search index (label vp:) with the assigned code gre.
    • To find all Greek script records, enter vp:gre as a Command Line Search only.
       Note: If a search for all Greek script records alone retrieves too many WorldCat records (limit 1,500 records), you must limit the search and try again (e.g., vp:gre/1991- (qualified by years of publication); vp:gre and mt:bks (limited to records in the Continuing resources format); etc.).

See general procedures and search techniques for searching WorldCat.

Greek character indexing specifics

All capital forms of Greek letters are indexed the same as the corresponding small forms of Greek letters. For example, Greek capital letter gamma (connexion-client-greek-capital-letter-gamma.png) is indexed the same as Greek small letter gamma (Greek small letter gamma). Enter either a capital or small version of a Greek letter in a search and retrieve results for both.


  • Greek beta symbol/small letter beta middle of word (Greek beta symbol/small letter beta middle of word) is indexed the same as Greek small letter beta (Greek small letter beta).
  • Greek small letter final sigma/small letter sigma end of word (Greek small letter final sigma/small letter sigma end of word) is indexed the same as Greek small letter sigma (Greek small letter sigma).