Discover how to use Boolean operators to narrow or broaden your WorldCat index search.
Use the Boolean operators shown in the following table for combining search terms to narrow or broaden searches:
|Connexion/FirstSearch||WorldShare and WorldCat Discovery|
||su:wom?n and ti:history and gc:new york and yr:1970|
|or||O||Finds any single term or all terms||pn=woolf, virginia or pn=woolf, leonard and yr:1900-50|
||ti=civil war not su:battle not gc=united states|
Boolean searches are processed in left to right order.
- Type operators between search terms to combine them.
- Some complex Boolean searches in the WorldCat.org and WorldCat Discovery interfaces are not supported. These types of queries are prevented to enhance the search infrastructure's overall performance. WorldShare Record Manager and FirstSearch continue to support this index.
- Do not use for browsing (scanning indexes).
- Do not truncate a music publisher number or Government Document Number in a combined search; type the complete number.
- Boolean searches can be nested using parentheses — ut:(civil w1 war) and (battlefield w1 command*)
- For Word searches, if you do not want the system to use these words as operators, enclose the word in quotation marks. For example, to search for the title Neighbors Near and Far which includes near and and, normally treated as operators, type ti:neighbors "near" "and" far.